Appian (Appianus) used to be a Greek professional of Alexandria. He observed the Jewish uprising of 116 CE, and later turned a Roman citizen and recommend and acquired the rank of eques (knight). In his older years he held a procuratorship. He died through the reign of Antoninus Pius who used to be emperor 138–161 CE. sincere admirer of the Roman empire notwithstanding blind to the associations of the sooner Roman republic, he wrote, within the uncomplicated 'common' dialect, 24 books of 'Roman affairs', actually conquests, from the beginnings to the days of Trajan (emperor 98–117 CE). 11 have come right down to us whole, or approximately so, particularly these at the Spanish, Hannibalic, Punic, Illyrian, Syrian, and Mithridatic wars, and 5 books at the Civil Wars. they're useful documents of army history.
The Loeb Classical Library version of Appian is in 4 volumes.
Read or Download Appian: Roman History, II, Books 8.2-12 (Loeb Classical Library #3) (Volume II) PDF
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Additional info for Appian: Roman History, II, Books 8.2-12 (Loeb Classical Library #3) (Volume II)
First they ate their pack animals, and after them their horses, and so they boiled their leather-based straps for nutrients. additionally they fell ailing of varied ailments because of loss of foodstuff, wish of workout and the season, for they have been enclosed in a single position and in a shrunk camp - an excellent multitude of guys uncovered to the warmth of an African summer season. whilst the provision of wooden for cooking failed they burned their shields. they can no longer perform the our bodies of the useless simply because Massinissa stored strict protect, nor may possibly they burn them for wish of gasoline. So there has been a negative pestilence between them as a result of dwelling within the stench of putrefying corpses. The better a part of the military was once already wasted away. the remaining, seeing no wish of break out, agreed to renounce the deserters to Massinissa and to pay him 5,000 abilities of silver in fifty years, and to take again those that have been banished, even if this was once opposite to their oath. They have been to move out via their enemies, one after the other, via a unmarried gate, and with not anything yet a brief tunic for every. Gulussa, filled with wrath on the attack made upon him now not lengthy prior to, both with the connivance of his father or upon his personal movement, made a cost upon them with a physique of Numidian cavalry as they have been going out. As that they had neither hands to withstand nor energy to fly, many have been slain. So, out of 58,000 males composing the military just a couple of lower back secure to Carthage, between them Hasdrubal, the overall and others of the the Aristocracy. [ §74] Such used to be the conflict among Massinissa and the Carthaginians.  The 3rd and final Punic warfare of the Romans in Africa it. The Carthaginians having suffered this calamity by the hands of Massinissa, and town being a lot weakened via it, they started to be fearful of the king himself, who used to be nonetheless close to them with a wide military, and likewise of the Romans, who have been continually harboring ill-will towards them and could make the affairs of Massinissa an excuse for it. They weren't incorrect in both specific. The Romans, once they realized the foregoing evidence, straightway started to gather a military all through all Italy, now not telling what it was once meant for, yet so as, they stated, to have it prepared for emergencies. The Carthaginians, pondering to place an finish to the excuse, condemned Hasdrubal, who had performed the crusade opposed to Massinissa, and Carthalo, the boëtharch, and any others who have been involved within the topic, to dying, placing the total blame of the conflict upon them. They despatched ambassadors to Rome to bitch of Massinissa, and whilst to accuse their very own electorate of taking over hands opposed to him too rapidly and rashly, and of furnishing an get together for an imputation of hostility at the a part of their urban. whilst one of many senators requested the ambassadors why they didn't condemn their officials at the start of the struggle rather than ready until they have been overwhelmed, and why they didn't ship their embassy sooner than, rather than suspending it until now, they can now not supply any solution. The Senate, which had formerly resolved upon battle and used to be in basic terms looking a few petty excuse, spoke back that the protection provided by way of the Carthaginians used to be no longer passable.